An intemperate general. An unpopular war. A military and diplomatic team in disarray.
Those are the challenges President Obama has faced as he attempts to make a success of U.S. involvement in Afghanistan. They are also the challenges President Truman surmounted in the winter of 1950 as he began managing a war in Korea that risked becoming bigger and more costly. It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War: U.S. troops under the command of General Douglas MacArthur came to the aid of the South Koreans after North Korea invaded. When Communist China entered the conflict on the side of the North Koreans, the crisis seemed on the verge of flaring into a world war. Truman was determined not to let that happen. MacArthur kept urging a widening of the war into China itself and ignoring his commander in chief. On April 11, 1951, after MacArthur had “shot his mouth off,” as one diplomat put it, one too many times, Truman fired him.
The story of their showdown—one of the most dramatic in U.S. history between a commander in chief and his top soldier in the field—is captured in all its detail by David McCullough in his Pulitzer Prize–winning biography Truman, and presented here in a ebook called Truman Fires MacArthur (ebook excerpt of Truman), which was the headline carried in many newspapers around the country the next day.
Harry S. Truman was born on May 8, 1884. Nearly twenty years prior, Anderson Truman freed his five slaves, Hannah, Marge, and their three daughters in Leavenworth, Kansas. Later on, a keeper of the family would conclude that the Truman's never owned slaves. Since owning slaves was a relatively accepted practice in the Confederacy, why would someone think to rewrite history? How would you describe the turning point in the American social consciousness over slavery? Why do you think it took so long for someone to stand up to Jim Crow, even after the senseless killing of nine African-Americans? How does history influence what lives are valuable within the consciousness of a society? What other factors are at play?
Truman's boyhood was shaped by deeply instilled values. Often eager to please and a "bookworm" Truman was the perfect child. Even at such an early age, Truman displayed a love for politics. What values did Truman hold that would later make him an outstanding politician? A significant part of Truman's moral character was reinforced by his education. Do you think that a similar education should be taught in today's public schools? If so, how?
Truman was a farmer, even though farmers were discouraged to fight, he felt it was his duty to serve in the war in Europe. The president at the time, Woodrow Wilson said, "upon the farmers rested the fate of the country and thus the fate of the world." Why were farmers so highly regarded at the time? What professions or occupations are held in the same regard today? What professions or occupations should be the last to fight a war? Explain.
In Captain Truman's first confrontation with the Germans he proved brave and stood his ground when many retreated. Despite the inexperience of his infantry, not a single soldier was killed in the melee. In your opinion, what were the critical points in Truman's life that led him to becoming a great leader? What led him toward an interest in artillery and a fascination for power?
December 1933 marked the end of prohibition. Having been repeatedly passed over for a position in Congress, Truman became a bit disgruntled with politics. What is the correlation between the end of prohibition and the political climate of the time? Why do you think Truman was consistently overlooked in the political arena?
How would you describe Truman's reluctance to run for Vice President with President Franklin Roosevelt? What factors made Truman the prime Vice Presidential candidate for the election? Compare and contrast Roosevelt and Truman, what made them the ideal pair?
After the election in 1944, Truman has very little contact with President Roosevelt. In fact, when Roosevelt was meeting with Churchill and Stalin for his second Big Three Conference, Truman was attending parties and receptions. Do you think Truman was intentionally left out of the loop of the strategy overseas? Considering Roosevelt's health at the time why do you think Truman was not briefed on international affairs?
On April 12, 1945 Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage. In the events immediately following his presidential oath, there seems to be a lot of uncertainty about whether he can handle the job. What other events leading up to this moment give you the impression that he lacks a confidence in himself that is required of a president?
9. What were the strongest factors contributing to Truman's victory in the election of 1948? Compare and contrast Truman and Dewey's campaign strategy.
10. When the steel industry was brought to a standstill due to labor strikes, Truman decides to take government control of the industry. A sincere advocate for labor unions, why did he feel that was the best decision? Why did his decision cause a devastating blow in Truman's popular opinion?
11. In your opinion, what were the greatest highlights of Truman's presidency? What progress did he make in settling The Cold War? What deeply held values carried him through seven years and nine months in office?
12. Senator Adlai E. Stevenson III of Illinois remarked that Truman's life was "an example of the ability of this society to yield up, from the most unremarkable origins, the most remarkable men." What do you have to learn from Truman's life? Did Truman epitomize the American dream? Explain.
David McCullough has twice received the Pulitzer Prize, for Truman and John Adams, and twice received the National Book Award, for The Path Between the Seas and Mornings on Horseback. His other acclaimed books include The Johnstown Flood, TheGreat Bridge, Brave Companions, 1776, The Greater Journey, The American Spirit, and The Wright Brothers. He is the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian award. Visit DavidMcCullough.com.
"Meticulously detailed, elegantly written, tightly constructed, rich in revealing anecdotes and penetrating insights. It is, as its subject demands, biography on the grand scale." -- Jonathan Yardley, The Washington Post
"A warm, affectionate and thoroughly captivating biography....the most thorough account of Truman's life yet to appear. " -- Alan Brinkley, The New York Times Book Review
"McCullough's marvelous feel for history is based on an appreciation of colorful tales and an insight into personalities. In this compelling saga of America's greatest common-man president, McCullough adds luster to an old-fashioned historical approach...the sweeping narrative, filled with telling details and an appreciation of the role individuals play in, shaping the world." -- Walter Isaacson, Time
"Remarkable....you may open it at any point and instantly become fascinated, so easy, lucid, and energetic is the narrative and so absorbing the sequence of events." -- The Economist
"McCullough is a master storyteller whose considerable narrative skills have been put to exquisite use in re-creating the life and times of America's 33rd president." -- Robert Dallek, Los Angeles Times Book Review