Like its neighbors on the Arabian Peninsula, the Republic of Yemen has a long and rich history. The southern Arabian region, which present-day Yemen shares, was once the home of the Sabaean kingdom. Led by the queen of Sheba, the kingdom formed an alliance with King Solomon, as recorded in the Old Testament. In the era of the burgeoning spice trade, the people of the Yemen region, which was advantageously located along the sea routes to Asia, had opportunities to attain great wealth. However, the British and other powers to the north eventually made their own claims on trade in the region. In the years after losing control of their great ports, the Yemenis have endured long periods of poverty and armed conflict, much of which has been waged between their rival northern and southern states. A much-needed unification between the north and south finally occurred in 1990, but Yemen still struggles to resolve its regional differences and compete with the oil-rich states of the Persian Gulf. Discusses the geography, history, economy, government, religion, people, foreign relations, and communities of Yemen.